Macrophage activation is a pathogenic mechanism leading to chronic inflammation in the body , but persistent macrophage activation can lead to chronic inflammation and diseases such as insulin resistance and severe diseases such as atherosclerosis. PGE 2 , which mediates the inflammatory response, is synthesized from arachidonic acid by cyclooxygenases (COX-1 and COX-2) . COX-1 and COX-2 are the main targets of anti-inflammatory and can be inhibited by non- steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) .
use of NSAIDs can cause many adverse reactions , such as gastrointestinal bleeding . Therefore, it is particularly important to find a safer natural substance to treat inflammation .
Recently, a research team from Tsinghua University treated mouse macrophages with NMN, and proved through experiments that NMN can reduce the accumulation of inflammation-related proteins and metabolic byproducts, and inhibit the inflammatory response of macrophages . Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences .
Inflammation alters levels of metabolic byproducts in macrophages
First, the research team activated macrophages to produce inflammation through lipopolysaccharide (LPS ) , and then analyzed the content of byproducts around macrophages during inflammation . The levels of 99 metabolites were increased and 105 metabolites were decreased among the 458 molecules detected before and after inflammatory stimulation , and NAD+ levels that accompany inflammation were also decreased.
NMN increases NAD levels and reduces macrophage inflammation
The research team then treated macrophages with LPS, which induces an inflammatory state, IL-6 and IL-1β, pro-inflammatory cytokines that act as markers of inflammation . After NMN treatment of LPS-induced macrophage inflammation , it was found that the intracellular NAD level was increased and the mRNA expression of IL-6 and IL-1β was decreased . Experiments demonstrated that NMN increased the level of NAD and attenuated LPS-induced macrophage inflammation .
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NMN reduces inflammation-related protein levels
NMN treatment, it was found that proteins related to inflammation such as RELL1 , PTGS2, FGA, FGB and igkv12-44 were decreased in cells , which indicated that NMN reduced the expression of inflammation-related proteins .
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NMN reduces the expression of NSAIDS target proteins
The final experiment found that NMN reduced the level of PGE2 in LPS-activated RAW264.7 cells by reducing the expression level of COX-2 , thereby reducing the expression of COX2 and inhibiting LPS-induced inflammation.
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conclusion , supplementation of NMN can effectively treat chronic inflammation in mice, and the treatment of inflammation in humans still needs to be verified by relevant clinical trials. Perhaps NMN will become a substitute for NSAIDS in the near future.
1.Liu J, Zong Z, Zhang W, Chen Y, Wang X, Shen J, Yang C, Liu X, Deng H. Nicotinamide Mononucleotide Alleviates LPS-Induced Inflammation and Oxidative Stress via Decreasing COX-2 Expression in Macrophages. Front Mol Biosci. 2021 Jul 6.
Post time: Nov-26-2022